Sales warranties – the Case: Example on recognising and measuring provisions
A manufacturer gives warranties at the time of sale to purchasers of its product. Under the terms of the contract for sale, the manufacturer undertakes to make good, by repair or replacement, manufacturing defects that become apparent within three years from the date of sale. On the basis of experience, it is probable (ie more likely than not) that there will be some claims under the warranties.
Considerations Sales warranties
Present obligation as a result of a past obligating event—the obligating event is the sale of the product with a warranty, which gives rise to a legal obligation. Sales warranties
An outflow of resources embodying economic benefits in settlement—probable for the warranties as a whole.
Conclusion—the entity recognises a provision for the best estimate of the costs of making good under the warranty products sold before the reporting date. Sales warranties
Illustration of calculations
In 20X0, goods are sold for CU1,000,000. Experience indicates that 90 per cent of products sold require no warranty repairs; 6 per cent of products sold require minor repairs costing 30 per cent of the sale price; and 4 per cent of products sold require major repairs or replacement costing 70 per cent of sale price. Consequently, estimated warranty costs are: Sales warranties
The expenditures for warranty repairs and replacements for products sold in 20X0 are expected to be made 60 per cent in 20X1, 30 per cent in 20X2, and 10 per cent in 20X3, in each case at the end of the period. Because the estimated cash flows already reflect the probabilities of the cash outflows, and assuming there are no other risks or uncertainties that must be reflected, to determine the present value of those cash flows the entity uses a ‘risk-free’ discount rate based on government bonds with the same term as the expected cash outflows (6 per cent for one-year bonds and 7 per cent for two-year and three-year bonds). Sales warranties
Calculation of the present value, at the end of 20X0, of the estimated cash flows related to the warranties for products sold in 20X0 is as follows: Sales warranties
The entity will recognise a warranty obligation of CU41,846 at the end of 20X0 for products sold in 20X0. The provision has to be reassessed on a regular basis (at least each statutory reporting date but many times every reporting date).
All of the entities in the examples have 31 December as their reporting date. In all cases, it is assumed that a reliable estimate can be made of any outflows expected. In some examples the circumstances described may have resulted in impairment of the assets; this aspect is not dealt with in the examples. References to ‘best estimate’ are to the present value amount, when the effect of the time value of money is material.
Assurance-type or Service-type warranties Warranties in arrangements to sell goods or services
If the customer has the option to purchase the warranty separately or if the warranty provides a service to the customer, beyond fixing defects that existed at the time of sale, IFRS 15 B29 states that the entity is providing a service type warranty. Otherwise, it is an assurance-type warranty, which provides the customer with assurance that the product complies with agreed-upon specifications. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine whether a warranty provides a customer with a service in addition to the assurance that the delivered product is as specified in the contract. To help entities make that assessment, the standard provides the application guidance in IFRS 15 B31 and IFRS 15 B33. Sales warranties
Entities may need to exercise significant judgement when determining whether a warranty is an assurance-type or service-type warranty. An entity’s evaluation may be affected by several factors including common warranty practices within its industry and the entity’s business practices related to warranties. For example, consider an automotive manufacturer that provides a five-year warranty on a luxury vehicle and a three-year warranty on a standard vehicle. The manufacturer may conclude that the longer warranty period is not an additional service because it believes the materials used to construct the luxury vehicle are of a higher quality and that latent defects would take longer to appear. In contrast, the manufacturer may also consider the length of the warranty period and the nature of the services provided under the warranty and conclude that the five-year warranty period, or some portion of it, is an additional service that needs to be accounted for as a service-type warranty. IFRS 15 excludes assurance-type warranties, which are accounted for in accordance with IAS 37.
See also: The IFRS Foundation