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Contract modifications and variable consideration

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Contract modifications and variable consideration are discussed on this page.

IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (contents page is here) introduced a single and comprehensive framework which sets out how much revenue is to be recognised, and when. The core principle is that a vendor should recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the vendor expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. See a summary of IFRS 15 here. Contract modifications and variable consideration

Contract modification

A contract modification arises when the parties approve a change in the scope and/or the price of a … Read more

The Statement of Cash Flows

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A Historical Perspective on the Statement of Cash Flows

In 1987, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an accounting standard, FASB Statement no. 95, requiring that the statement of cash flows be presented as one of the three primary financial statements. Previously, companies had been required to present a statement of changes in financial position, often called the funds statement. In 1971, APC Opinion no. 19 made the funds statement a required financial statement although many companies had begun reporting funds flow information several years earlier.

The funds statement provided useful information, but it had several limitations. First, APB Opinion no. 19 allowed considerable flexibility in how funds could be defined and how they were reported Read more

IFRS 3 Application of the definition of a business

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IFRS 3 Application of the definition of a business – Highlights

In October 2018, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB or Board) issued amendments to the definition of a business in IFRS 3 Business Combinations. The amendments are intended to assist entities to determine whether a transaction should be accounted for as a business combination or as an asset acquisition.

IFRS 3 continues to adopt a market participant’s perspective to determine whether an acquired set of activities and assets is a business. The amendments: clarify the minimum requirements for a business; remove the assessment of whether market participants are capable of replacing any missing elements; add guidance to help entities assess whether an acquired process is substantive; … Read more

IFRS 3 Acquired process is substantive?

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IFRS 3 Acquired process is substantive? – IFRS 3 requires a business to include, as a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create output. Because all asset acquisitions include inputs, the existence of a substantive process is what distinguishes an asset or group of assets from a business. Entities can no longer presume that a set contains a process if the set generates revenues before and after the transaction. Further analysis is required to determine whether the set contains a substantive process.

Implementation of IFRS 3 revealed difficulties in assessing whether the acquired processes are sufficient to constitute one of the elements of a business; whether any missing Read more

IFRS 3 Redefinition of a business

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IFRS 3 Redefinition of a business – In summary:IFRS 3 Redefinition of a business IFRS 3 Redefinition of a business

  • The IASB issued narrow-scope amendments to IFRS 3 to help entities determine whether an acquired set of activities and assets is a business or not.
  • The amendments clarify the minimum requirements to be a business, remove the assessment of a market participant’s ability to replace missing elements, and narrow the definition of outputs.
  • The amendments add guidance to assess whether an acquired process is substantive and add illustrative examples.
  • The amendments introduce an optional concentration test to permit a simplified assessment.
  • The amendments are effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2020 and apply prospectively. Earlier
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Retirement Benefit Plans

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Retirement Benefit PlansRetirement Benefit Plans – The objective of IAS 26 is to specify measurement and disclosure principles for the reports of retirement benefit plans. All plans should include in their reports a statement of changes in net assets available for benefits, a summary of significant accounting policies and a description of the plan and the effect of any changes in the plan during the period.

Retirement benefit plans are normally described as either defined contribution plans or defined benefit plans, each having their own distinctive characteristics. Occasionally plans exist that contain characteristics of both. Such hybrid plans are considered to be defined benefit plans for the purposes of IAS 26.

For defined contribution plans, the objective of reporting Read more

Disclosures material joint ventures

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Disclosures material joint ventures – The disclosures may be aggregated for interests in similar entities, with the method of aggregation being disclosed (aggregation resembling/replacing consolidation). A quantitative and qualitative analysis, taking into account the different risk and return characteristics of each entity, is made in order to determine the aggregation level. IFRS 12 gives the following examples of aggregation levels: by nature of activities, by industry or by geography. [IFRS 12.4, B2–B6]

However, as a minimum, information is given separately for interests in subsidiaries, joint ventures, joint operations, associates and unconsolidated structured entities. [IFRS 12.B4–B6]

Note a) [IFRS 12 B14(a)]


IFRS 12 indicates that the amounts included in the summarised financial Read more

Investments material associates disclosures

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Investments material associates disclosuresInvestments material associates disclosures – The subject of investments material associates disclosures may be aggregated for interests in similar entities, with the method of aggregation being disclosed (aggregation being consolidation). A quantitative and qualitative analysis, taking into account the different risk and return characteristics of each entity, is made in order to determine the aggregation level. IFRS 12 gives the following examples of aggregation levels: by nature of activities, by industry or by geography. [IFRS 12.4, B2–B6]

However, as a minimum, information is given separately for interests in subsidiaries, joint ventures, joint operations, associates and unconsolidated structured entities. [IFRS 12.B4–B6]

Note a) [IFRS 12 B14(a)] Investments material associates disclosures


IFRS 12 Read more

Considerations for cloud arrangements

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Considerations for cloud arrangements – Cloud services arrangements may include the cloud services (such as software-as-a-service (SaaS)) or other products or services. These arrangements also frequently include a licence of the software, for which the customer may (or may not) have the right to take possession.

Cloud services entities also frequently offer professional services, such as implementation, data migration, business process mapping, training and project management services, in addition to the cloud service itself. These professional services may be required for a customer to begin using the cloud services in the manner described in the contract.

Considerations for cloud arrangements Considerations for cloud arrangements

Considerations for cloud arrangementsIFRS 15 provides a framework for identifying the performance obligations in a contract. … Read more

Licences of intellectual property

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Licences of intellectual property – The determination of whether a licence is distinct may require judgement. In some software arrangements, a software licence will be distinct because it is the only promise in the contract. In other Licences of intellectual propertyarrangements, the customer will be able to benefit from the licence on its own or with readily available resources and it will be separately identifiable from the other goods or services in the contract (i.e., the other goods or services are also distinct).

An example of a distinct licence is a software package that can be used on its own without customisation or modification and future upgrades are not necessary for the customer to retain continued functionality of the software Read more